Wednesday, 25 March 2020

Reliability and Validity of Test


Reliability
Ø  Reliability refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results.
Ø  The consistency with which a test measures an item. Same result (Score) every time test repeats.
Ø  A person who takes a test one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score.


Validity
Ø  Validity is a test which helps predict weather a person will be successful in a given job.
Ø  A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not.
Ø  Naturally, no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. A validated test increases possibility of success.
Ø  Validity: The extent to which a text actually measures what it says it measures.
Ø  Relationship between predictor and job performance.
Ø  Predicts the Job performance.
Ø  Three Types of Validity are: Content validity, criterion validity, construct- validity.
Types of Validity:
1)     Content Validity:
Ø  Validity measured by use of logical, non-statistical method to identify the KSA( Knowledge, Skills, abilities) and other characteristics necessary to perform job.
Ø  When a test has content validity, the items on the test represent the entire range of possible items the test should cover. Individual test questions may be drawn from a large pool of items that cover a broad range of topics.
2)     Criterion-related Validity:
Ø  Validity measured by a procedure that use a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job. (e.g. Typing speed, words per minutes, 5 year experience)
Ø  Concurrent Validity: Occurs when the criterion measures are obtained at the same time as the test scores. This indicates the extent to which the test scores accurately estimate an individual’s current state with regards to the criterion.
Ø  For example, on a test that measures levels of depression, the test would be said to have concurrent validity if it measured the current levels of depression experienced by the test taker
Ø  Validity measured when an employer test current employees and correlate the scores with their performance ratings.
Ø  Predictive Validity: Validity measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance.
Ø  Predictive Validity: Validity measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance. (e.g. absenteeism, accidents, errors)
Ø  Predictive Validity: occurs when the criterion measures are obtained at a time after the test. Examples of test with predictive validity are career or aptitude tests, which are helpful in determining who is likely to succeed or fail in certain subjects or occupations.
3)     Construct Validity:
Ø  Relation between abstract characteristics and job performance. E.g. aggression, dominance, creativity, leadership skills.
Ø  A test has construct validity if it demonstrates an association between the test scores and the prediction of a theoretical trait.

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