Friday, 11 May 2018

Job Designing Methods

Job Designing Methods:
Job Rotation: Involves moving employees from job to job to add variety and reduce boredom.
Ø  Activity is no longer challenging, the employee would be moved to another job at the same level that has similar skills required.
Ø  Gives management flexibility in scheduling work.
Ø  Training cost increased.
Ø  Work is disturbed.
Ø  Demotivate intelligent and ambitious workers (Chosen specialty)
Ø  Herzberg: Substituting one zero for another zero.

Job Engineering: Focus on-
a)      Task to be performed
b)     Methods to be used
c)      Workflow among employees
d)     Layout of work space
e)      Performance standards
f)       Interdependencies among people and machines
g)      Time required to do each task
Golden rules of work design:
(1)   The end product/output of the work is clearly defined and fully understood by the employees
(2)   Steps to be performed are clearly defined
(3)   Individual employee knows/understand start and finish of their responsibilities
(4)   Tools, facilities and information needed to perform work are fully available and understood.
(5)   Employee involvement in work design and suggest possible improvements

Job Enlargement:
Ø  Expansion of the number of different task performed by an employees in single job
Ø  To add somewhat similar task to the existing job
Ø  Task variety: reduce boredom
Ø  Meaningful work module: one worker completes a whole unit of work, or at least a major portion of it. (Satisfaction- contribution to product)
Ø  Ability Utilization: Utilize their physical and mental skills and abilities better.
a)      Training cost raised
b)     Union often argue for increased pay because of the increased work load
c)      May be still boring and routine
d)     Herzberg: Adding zero to zero
a.       Boring task (Zero)
b.       Another Boring task (Zero)

Job Enrichment:
Ø  Adding more motivations to a job
Ø  Make it more rewarding
Ø  Job Holder is given more decision making, planning and controlling powers
According to Herzberg, an enriched job has 8 (eight) characteristics:
(a)   Direct feedback:
                                 i.            Immediate knowledge of the result they are achieving
                               ii.            Either direct or provided by supervisor (performance evaluation)
(b)   Client Relationship:
                                 i.            Direct serve to customer
                               ii.            Mechanic dealing with car owner
(c)   New Learning:
                                 i.            Feeling of growing intellectually
                               ii.            News Paper cutting (clips) for Boss
(d)   Scheduling of own work
(e)   Unique Experience:
                                 i.            Unique qualities
                               ii.            Quality controller visits suppliers
(f)    Control over resources:
                                 i.            Control over his/her expanses
                               ii.            Authority to order (supply of necessary items)
(g)   Direct communication authority
                                 i.            Communicate directly with people who use his or her output
                               ii.            Handling customer complaints directly
(h)   Personal Accountability:
                                 i.            Responsibilities for result
                               ii.            Praise for good
                             iii.            Blame for poor work
         (i) More responsibilities, autonomy, more variety of tasks, more growth opportunities.
(Ref: Human Resource Management by Aswathappa K)

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