Sunday, 11 January 2015

Theory X and Theory Y



Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor


  • Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings.
  • One basically negative : labeled Theory X
  • Other basically positive: Theory Y
  • Manager’s view regarding employees, certain grouping assumptions, Manager’s view, manager’s behavior according to these assumptions.

Theory X: four assumptions (negative)


  1. Employees inherently dislike work, and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.
  2. Since employees dislike work, the must be coerced (forced), controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
  3. Employee will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible
  4. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

Theory Y four assumption: (positive)


  1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play
  2. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
  3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibilities
  4. The ability to make innovative decision is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not sole province (authority, jurisdiction) of those in management position.

McGregor Y assumptions are more valid than X
He proposed : participative decision making, responsibilities, challenging jobs, good group relationship to motivate employees.


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