Tuesday, 20 January 2015

Model of Stress:

Model of Stress:

  1. Potential sources of stress
    1. Environment
    2. Organization
    3. Individual
  2. Individual differences
  3. Experienced Stress
  4. Consequences:
    1. Physiological
    2. Psychological
    3. Behavioral

 Potential Sources of stress:

  • Environmental Factors:
    • Economic uncertainties
    • Political uncertainties
    • Technological uncertainties (employees’ skills and experience obsolete very short)
    • Terrorism
  • Organization Factors:
    • Pressure to avoid errors
    • Complete tasks in time limits
    • Work over-loads, unpleasant coworkers
    • A demanding and in-sensitive boss
  • Individual Factors:
    • Family problems
    • Inherent personality characteristics
    • Marital difficulties
    • Breaking of relationships
    • Economic problems (poor money managers)

Individual Differences:

Individual differences variable moderate the relationship between potential stress and experienced stress. Six variable:
  • Perception
  • Job Experience
  • Social Support
  • Belief in locus of control
  • Self- efficacy (efficiency, value)
  • Hostility (unfriendliness, aggression )

Consequences of stress:

  • Physiological: headaches, blood pressure, heart disease
  • Psychological: anxiety, depression, low job satisfaction.
  • Behavioral symptoms: Productivity, turnover, absenteeism


Inverted – U relationship between stress and job performance:






  • The logic underlying the inverted-U is that low to moderate level of stress stimulates the body and increase its ability to react.
  • Individual then often perform their task better, more intensity , or rapidly.
  • But too much stress places unattainable demands or constraints on a person, which result in lower performance.
  • Relation between stress and time:
    • Even moderate level of stress can have a negative influence on performance over the long time as the continued intensity of the stress wears down the individual and saps (health, energies) his or her energy resources.

 (Ref: Organization Behavior - S.P.Robbins)

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