Wednesday, 25 March 2020

Reliability and Validity of Test


Reliability
Ø  Reliability refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results.
Ø  The consistency with which a test measures an item. Same result (Score) every time test repeats.
Ø  A person who takes a test one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score.


Validity
Ø  Validity is a test which helps predict weather a person will be successful in a given job.
Ø  A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not.
Ø  Naturally, no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. A validated test increases possibility of success.
Ø  Validity: The extent to which a text actually measures what it says it measures.
Ø  Relationship between predictor and job performance.
Ø  Predicts the Job performance.
Ø  Three Types of Validity are: Content validity, criterion validity, construct- validity.
Types of Validity:
1)     Content Validity:
Ø  Validity measured by use of logical, non-statistical method to identify the KSA( Knowledge, Skills, abilities) and other characteristics necessary to perform job.
Ø  When a test has content validity, the items on the test represent the entire range of possible items the test should cover. Individual test questions may be drawn from a large pool of items that cover a broad range of topics.
2)     Criterion-related Validity:
Ø  Validity measured by a procedure that use a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job. (e.g. Typing speed, words per minutes, 5 year experience)
Ø  Concurrent Validity: Occurs when the criterion measures are obtained at the same time as the test scores. This indicates the extent to which the test scores accurately estimate an individual’s current state with regards to the criterion.
Ø  For example, on a test that measures levels of depression, the test would be said to have concurrent validity if it measured the current levels of depression experienced by the test taker
Ø  Validity measured when an employer test current employees and correlate the scores with their performance ratings.
Ø  Predictive Validity: Validity measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance.
Ø  Predictive Validity: Validity measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance. (e.g. absenteeism, accidents, errors)
Ø  Predictive Validity: occurs when the criterion measures are obtained at a time after the test. Examples of test with predictive validity are career or aptitude tests, which are helpful in determining who is likely to succeed or fail in certain subjects or occupations.
3)     Construct Validity:
Ø  Relation between abstract characteristics and job performance. E.g. aggression, dominance, creativity, leadership skills.
Ø  A test has construct validity if it demonstrates an association between the test scores and the prediction of a theoretical trait.

The Result Approach


The Result Approach:

Ø  Focuses on managing the objectives, measurable results of job or work group.
Ø  This approach assumes that subjectivity can be eliminated from the measurement process and that results are the closest indicator of one’s contribution to organizational effectiveness.
Management by Objectives (MBO):
Ø  In organizations where MBO is used to set goals and objectives for employees, the supervisor will use this approach for performance appraisal also.
Ø  The appraisal is based on whether or not the employee has met his or her objectives.
Ø  The advantage is that employees know what to expect.
The supervisor focuses on results rather than more subjective criteria.

Result Approach:
Advantages:
Ø  Minimizing Subjectivity
Ø  Relying on objectives, quantifiable indicators of performances.
Ø  Links an individual’s result with organizational strategies and goals.
Disadvantages:
Ø  Objective measurements are affected by the things that are not under the employee’s control, e.g. economic recession.
Ø  Individual may focus only on aspects of their performance those are measured, neglecting those are not.
Ø  Objective feedback may not help employee to learn how they need to change the behavior to increase their performances.
The Quality Approach:
Ø  Two fundamental characteristics of the quality approach are:
o   Customer Orientation
o   Prevention approach to errors.
Ø  Improving customer satisfaction is the primary goal of the quality approach.
Ø  Customer can be internal or external to organization.
The Quality Approach:
Ø  Emphasize an assessment of both person and system factors in the measurement system.
Ø  Emphasize that managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.
Ø  Involves both internal and external customers in setting standards and measuring performances.
Ø  Use multiple sources to evaluate person and system factors.
Ø  Statistical process control techniques are very important in the quality approach e.g. process-flow analysis, cause and effect analysis, Pareto chart, control charts, histograms and scatter grams.


Tuesday, 24 March 2020

Sources of External Recruitment


Sources of External Recruitment:
1.      Professional or Trade Associations
a.       Placement service to members
b.       Publish trade journals, Magazines (Classified advertisements from employers)
2.      Advertisements (Wants- Ads)
a.       News Papers
b.       Professional Journals/ Business Journals
c.        Blind Ad: No Identification of Organization
d.       Only those individuals the Organization wishes to see are notify (Others ignored)
e.       Higher Cost for advertising
3.      Employment Exchange
a.       Employment exchange Act (1959)
b.       Compulsory notification of vacancies.
c.        Act applies to all industries having 25 or more employees.
4.      Campus Recruitment
a.       College, Business Schools, Universities, Research Laboratories, Sports fields, Institutes.
b.       Expensive, Job offers, acceptances. Majority of those would leave the Organization within 5 years.
5.      Walk-ins, Write-ins, Talk-ins
a.       Most common, least expensive
b.       Effective in entry-level, unskilled vacancies.
c.        Write-ins: Send written application
6.       Consultants:
a.       Nationwide contacts
b.       Professionalism to hiring people
c.        Costly, 25 to 50 % salary of emp. as fees
7.       Contracts:
a.       Off roles, Not employee of company
b.       Maintaining  record is avoided
8.       Displaced Persons:
a.       Social Responsibilities
b.       Govt. , World Bank pressure
c.        Kashmir, Lathur etc.
9.      Radio/ Television
a.       Govt. department only.
b.       High Cost ( Private Company –ive image)
10.  Mergers and Acquisitions
a.       Large pool of qualified employees.
b.       Immediate implementation of Organization plan.
11.  Competitors
a.       Raid, Steal, Poach (Surprise attack)
b.       HMT watches to Titan, SBI to Pvt. Banks and Insurance, Indian Airlines Pilots to Pvt. Airlines.
c.        Legal and ethical issues, employees are expected to take NOC.
12.   E-Recruiting :
a.       Company websites, electronic screening
b.       Video Conferencing, Cost saving, reach to worldwide candidate.
c.        Drawback: Many unqualified applications, miss the talent (not accessing internet)

Sources of Internal Recruitment


Sources of Internal Recruitment
1.      Present Employees
a.       Promotions and Transfers from among the present employees.
b.       It builds Morale
c.        It encourages competent individuals who are ambitious
d.       It improves the probability of good selection, since information on the individual’s performance is readily available.
2.      Employees referral (Recommendations)
a.       Low Cost, Large employee can provide large pool of qualified potential candidates.
b.       Negative Factor: Inbreeding, group of people quitting one firm and joining another one.
c.        May demand unacceptable privileges.
d.       Threaten to quit.
3.      Former Employees
a.       Retire Employees: May willing to work part time
b.       May recommend someone.
c.        People who have left the company for some reason, may come back (Higher salary, Higher Post)
d.       Performance already known
4.      Previous Applicants
a.       Not fully an internal source
b.       Contact by mail
c.        Quick, inexpensive

Monday, 23 March 2020

Advantage and Disadvantage of Internal and External Recruitment Sources:


Advantage and Disadvantage of Internal and External Sources:
Internal Sources of Recruitment
Advantages
Disadvantages
1
Morale of promote
Inbreeding
2
Better assessment of abilities
Possible morale problems of those not promoted
3
Lower cost for same jobs
Political infighting for promotions
4
Motivator for good performance
Need for management development program
5
Causes a succession of promotions

6
Have to hire only at entry level

External Sources of Recruitment
1
New blood brings news perspectives
May not select someone who will “fit” the job or organization
2
Cheaper and faster than training professionals
May cause morale problems for internal candidate not selected
3
No group of political support in organization already
Loner adjustment or orientation time
4
May bring new industry insight